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Section 10 provides list of incomes which are exempt from tax Amongst these the major exemptions relating to capital gains are listed below:

Section 10(33) : Long-term or short-term capital gain arising on transfer of units of Unit Scheme, 1964 (US 64) (transferred on or after 1-4-2002).

Section 10(37) : An individual or Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) can claim exemption in respect of capital gain arising on transfer of agricultural land situated in an urban  area by way of compulsory acquisition. This exemption is available if the land was used by the taxpayer (or by his parents in the case of an individual) for agricultural purpose for a period of 2 years immediately preceding the date of its transfer .

Section 10(37A) : An individual or Hindu Undivided Family (HUF) can claim exemption in respect of capital gain arising on transfer of land or building or both under Land Pooling Scheme under the Andhra Pradesh Capital City Land Pooling Scheme (Formulation and Implementation) Rules, 2015. This exemption is available if individual or HUF was owner of such land as on 02-06-2014. [Inserted by the Finance Act 2017 w.e.f. 01-04-2015].

Section 10(38) : Long-term capital gain arising on transfer of equity shares or units of equity oriented mutual fund (*) or a unit of a business trust other than a unit allotted by the trust in exchange of shares of a special purpose vehicle as referred to in section 47(xvii), will be exempt from tax, if the following conditions are satisfied:

  • The asset transferred should be equity shares of a company or units of an equity oriented mutual fund or a unit of a business trust other than a unit allotted by the trust in exchange of shares of a special purpose vehicle as referred to in section 47​.
  • The transaction should be liable to securities transaction tax (STT) at the time of transfer.
  • Such asset should be a long-term capital asset.
  • Transfer should take place on or after October 1, 2004.​

Note 1: Any long-term capital gain arising from a transaction undertaken in recognized stock exchange located in an International Financial Service Center shall be exempt from tax. Such exemption is available if such transaction is undertaken in foreign current and even if no STT is paid on such transaction.

Long term capital gain exemption on transfer of equity share acquired or on after 01-10-2004 shall be available only if the acquisition of share is chargeable to STT. However, the exemption shall continue in genuine cases where the STT could not have been paid like acquisition of share in IPO, FPO, bonus or right issue by a listed company, acquisition by non-resident in accordance with FDI policy, etc. [Inserted by Finance Act 2017]

(*) Equity oriented mutual fund means a mutual fund specified under section 10(23D) and 65% of its investible funds, out of total proceeds of such fund are invested in equity shares of domestic companies.​

Exemption for long-term capital gains arising from transfer of listed securities as referred to in Section 10(38) has been withdrawn by the Finance Act, 2018 w.e.f. Assessment Year 2019-20 and a new Section 112A is introduced in the Income-tax Act.

As per Section 112A, long-term capital gains arising from transfer of an equity share, or a unit of an equity oriented fund or a unit of a business trust shall be taxed at 10% (without indexation) of such capital gains. The tax on capital gains shall be levied in excess of Rs. 1 lakh.

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